ALL ABOUT CYBERCRIMES
By Megha Malhotra:-
Cybercrimes are criminal offenses carried out via Internet or in any case supported by different types of PC innovation. The most despicable aspect of the web, cybercrime alludes to any criminal operations did utilizing innovation. Cybercriminals, who run from scoundrel people to composed offensive groups to state-supported caucus — use procedures like phishing, social building, and a wide range of malware to seek after their iniquitous plans.
Cyber Crimes can be classified in two different ways:
- The offences wherein the Computer is the Target. For instance hacking, infection assaults, DOS assault and so on.
- The offences in which the Computer is employed as a weapon. These kinds of offences incorporate cyber terrorism, IPR violations, credit card frauds, EFT frauds, pornography etc.
KINDS OF CYBERCRIMES
1.Unauthorized access and hacking
Unauthorized access implies any access obtained without the consent of either the lawful or the person in charge of the computer, computer system or the computer network. Hacking is basically any unapproved access to a computer framework. It refers to illegal intrusion or breaking into a compaluter system or network. At times hacking can be genuinely innocuous, for instance, reworking segments of a current programming project to permit access to highlights the actual creator didn’t plan. While this is in fact an infringement of the Terms of Service agreement, it isn’t actually a prosecutable offense however is as yet considered hacking. Hacking is presumably one of the most comprehensively used devise for cybercrime, yet not all programmers are offenders. A few programmers often called “white hat” hackers, are appointed by software companies to discover defects and flaws in their frameworks so they can fix them before “black hat” or criminal hackers do.
Web hijacking implies assuming coercive control of a person’s website. Under such a circumstance, the owner loses authority over his website and its substance.
Pornography implies demonstrating sexual acts so as to cause sexual elation. The definition of pornography likewise incorporates sources like explicit pornographic websites, pornographic magazines created using computers and internet pornography conveyed over cell phones.
The Internet is frequently used means to explicitly exploit children . The youngsters are vulnerable and viable prey to the Cybercrimes. Computers and internet having become an essential part of every family, the youngsters have a obvious access to the web and thus a straight and smooth access to the obscene substance i.e. pornography on the internet. Pedophiles attract the children by disseminating erotic material and attempt to get them to seek such content on their websites and meet them for sex or to take their nudes. Then gradually pedophiles begin genuine victimisation of the youngsters and sexually abuse the youngsters either by using them as sexual articles or by taking their erotic nudes so as to sell those over their websites.
Generally, stalking refers to the frequent acts of harassment targeting on the victims for instance, following the victim, making annoying badgering calls, vandalizing victim’s property, leaving messages or articles. Stalking might be trailed by severe harmful and brutal acts, for example, physical damage to the person in question. Internet Stalking implies repeated act of badgering or intimidating conduct of cyber criminal towards the victim by adopting internet services.
They gather all the personal information of the victim and keeps an eye on their daily schedule. He gathers the data via internet assets, for instance, victims different profiles. The stalker may post this information on any pornsite or dating pages, and posing as if the victim is posting this data by using extremely obscene and vulgar language to welcome the interested persons who start disturbing the victims by calling and demanding sexual services from them. Some stalkers subscribe the email record of the victim to multitudinous pornographic and sexual sites, on account of which victims start getting such sort of spontaneous uninvited e-mails. Some stalkers continue sending messages requesting various sorts of favors to undermine the victim.
6.Denial of-Service (DOS) attack, Email bombing or spamming
These kinds of assaults flood frameworks with so much data that it can crash the servers that cyber organizations rely upon. A DOS assault, for instance, swamps phony traffic to a site, which over-burdens the server, making a site incidentally glitch or even crash totally. DOS assaults can likewise be perpetrated deliberately to obstruct with a particular event that can cause a financial calamity. Another form of a classic denial of services assault is known as a Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack wherein the perpetrators are numerous and are geographically far reaching. Numerous DoS attacks, for example, the Ping of Death and Teardrop attacks, abuse limitations in the TCp/IP protocols.
Many sorts of malicious software can be conveyed by extensive means. In case of viruses, they have to be indeed downloaded somehow onto a hard drive. In targeted assaults, a victim may get a harmless email that is supposedly from an associate or entrusted individual containing a to tap on or document to download. In some cases, sites may contain tainted links that download worms or viruses when you click on them. Often they are camouflaged as standard advertisements that really convey malware when you click on the link. Viruses for the most part influece the information on a computer, either by modifying or deleting it. Whereas worms just make utilitarian duplicates of themselves and do this over and over till they gobble up all the accessible.
8.Email spoofing :
Herein email that is assumed to have been originate from one source is actually sent from another and may even result in monetary loss.
While identity theft isn’t the only cybercrime, nowadays it’s considerably more prone to happen through innovation and technology. If a hacker needs to perpetrate identity fraud or bank or credit card fraud, they first need to gather enough of their victim’s personal information to fuel the fraud. Here are a few different ways they can get the access:
- Phishing: Phishing is an act of sending an email to a person dishonestly professing to be a genuine and authentic enterprise with an endeavor to trick the person into giving up private information that will be utilised for identity fraud. The email instructs the users to visit a site where they are approached to refresh personal information like passwords and credit card, social security, and bank account numbers that the legitimate organisation already has. The Website, in reality, is a sham and set up just to take the user’s personal information. Cyber criminals use “bait” as fictitious messages to allure victims to counterfeit and fake sites where they accidentally enter personal information like usernames, passwords, or bank account details.
- Pharming: Taking it a stage further than phishing, pharming utilizes malware to reroute innocent users to fictitious websites, where they accidentally enter their personal information.
- Keylogging:This type of malware (or to be more specific, spyware) secretly logs everything you type, capturing your account information and other personal details.
Privacy alludes to an individual/s rights to decide when, how and to what degree his/her personal information will be imparted to other people. Breach of privacy implies unapproved use or conveyance or exposure of personal information. Confidentiality implies non exposure of personal information to unapproved or undesirable people. Along with Personal information some other sort of information which is helpful for business and escape of such information to different people may harm business or individual, such information ought to be protected and procured.
Usually for securing such information, parties enter into an agreement about the process of handling information and not to reveal such data to outsiders. Ordinarily party or their representatives release such significant data for monitory gains and commits breach of agreement of confidentiality.
An offer that utilizes bogus or deceitful claims to solicit investment or loans or credits, or that accommodates the purchase, use, or exchange of forged and fabricated securities. Goods or services that were bought or shrunk by people online are never conveyed. The scam owing to the deception of an article publicized available to be purchased through an Internet auction webpage or the non- delivery of articles bought through an Internet auction website. Investors are allured to invest resources into these fictitious plan by the promises of abnormally high profits.
- Cyber Terrorism
Attacks directed on army bases, power plants, airport regulation, banks, trail traffic control, media transmission systems are the most probable. Cyber terrorism is an alluring choice for present day terrorists for reasons like It is less expensive than Customary terrorism. It is more anonymous and the target base is quite large. Cyber terrorism and warfare can be led remotely, and possibly influence legitimately a bigger number of people, an element that allures terrorist the most to reply over itself.
Methods of cyber terrorism:
- Physical Attack. This is against computer facilities and/or transmission lines. This can be accomplished by use of conventional weapons to destroy or seriously injure computers and their terminals.
- Electronic Attack. This is accomplished by use of electromagnetic high energy or electromagnetic pulse to overload computer circuitry or microwave radio transmission.
- Computer Network Attack. This is accomplished usually by use of a malicious code to take advantage of software’s weakness. It is employed by hackers who enjoy the challenge of attacking computer protection devices or for economic purposes by gaining access to identities of users of the programs or sites.
Types of cyber terrorism:
- Posting of graffiti on websites that are essentially harmless but annoying to computer users
- Hackers who demonstrate the vulnerabilities of computers to outside attacks for reasons of pride in their capabilities to disable or affect computers.
- Criminal behavior, generally in the form of stealing passwords to gain access to bank accounts, credit cards, and the like in order to commit fraud and theft.
- Terrorist attacks to disable computers, gain entry into national security sites and data, cause havoc to a nation’s economic structure, and other motivations.
- Radio Frequency (RF) Weapons. A series of smooth radio waves causing the target to generate heat and burn up.
- Transient Electromagnetic Device (TED’s). Emission of a large burst of energy that targets a large spectrum of space. It can be the size of a briefcase, van size, or a large satellite dish.
- Electromagnetic Bomb/Pulse Weapon. Creation of an electromagnetic pulse viz. an electromagnetic shock wave that creates an enormous current many times that of a lightening strike.
- TEMPEST monitoring devices.
- Computer viruses, logic bombs, trojan horses.
- Denial of Service (Zombie) Attacks. Sending an overload of emails to the target system causing the system to crash.
- Check and monitor the websites and alerts regularly : this helps in countering the attacks of traffic by Sensing their patterns.
- Use threat detection software : this helps in detecting intrusions within seconds.
- Use honeypots : Honeypots appear to be a legitimate part of a network containing valuable data, but they are decoys containing no useful information for cyber criminals. As soon as a honeypot has attracted the attention of the cyber criminal, a warning is triggered and the attack can be confronted.
- Learn from your past cyber attack experience.